Trends in Clostridium difficile infection and risk factors for hospital acquisition of Clostridium difficile among children with cancer

Peter de Blank, Theoklis Zaoutis, Brian Fisher, Andrea Troxel, Jason Kim, Richard Aplenc
Journal of Pediatrics 2013, 163 (3): 699-705.e1

OBJECTIVES: To study the trend of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and risk factors for hospital acquired CDI (HA-CDI) among children with cancer.

STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 33 095 first pediatric hospitalizations for malignancy among 43 pediatric hospitals between 1999 and 2011. The effect of demographics, disease characteristics, and weekly drug exposure (antibiotics, antacids, and chemotherapy) on HA-CDI was assessed with multivariate Cox regression. CDI was defined by the combination of International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM), CDI diagnostic assay billing code, and concurrent administration of a CDI-active antibiotic. HA-CDI was defined as CDI with assay occurring after the sixth hospital day.

RESULTS: A total of 1736 admissions with CDI were identified, of which 380 were HA-CDI. CDI incidence increased from 1999-2006 (P = .01); however, CDI testing frequency and disease decreased from 2006-2010 (P < .05). Admissions with HA-CDI had longer lengths of stay compared with those without HA-CDI (35 days vs 12 days, P < .01) and greater risk of inpatient mortality (relative risk 2.3, P < .01). Increased risk of HA-CDI (hazard ratio [95% CI]) was seen after exposure to the following drugs: aminoglycoside (1.357 [1.053-1.749]), third generation cephalosporin (1.518 [1.177-1.959]), cefepime (2.383 [1.839-3.089]), and proton pump inhibiting agent (1.398 [1.096-1.784]) in the prior week, and chemotherapy (1.942 [1.491-2.529]) in the 8-14 days prior to HA-CDI onset. Histamine-2 receptor antagonist exposure in the prior week was associated with decreased risk of HA-CDI (0.730 [0.584-0.912]).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite an apparent decrease in CDI incidence from 2006-2010, HA-CDI remains prevalent and morbid among children with cancer. Recent exposure to chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitor, and certain antibiotics were independent risk factors for HA-CDI.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"