Factors correlated with the reducibility of varus deformity in knee osteoarthritis: an analysis using navigation guided TKA

Young Wan Moon, Jae Gyoon Kim, Jung Hoon Han, Kwan Hong Do, Jai Gon Seo, Hong Chul Lim
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery 2013, 5 (1): 36-43

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that a number of clinical and radiologic parameters could influence the reducibility of varus deformity in total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to identify the factors correlated with reducibility of varus deformity and predict more accurately the amount of medial soft tissue release required in varus deformity total knee arthroplasty.

METHODS: One hundred forty-three knees with preoperative varus alignment and medial osteoarthritis were included in this retrospective study. The total knee arthroplasties were performed using a navigation system (OrthoPilot) by single surgeon. To assess varus deformity, the authors measured preoperative mechanical axis angles and valgus stress angles. Mechanical tibial angles, mechanical femoral angles, femoral osteophyte sizes, and tibial osteophyte sizes were measured. The Ahlbäck grading scale was applied for radiologic parameters, and clinical parameters (age, body mass index, sex, duration of pain, and preoperative range of motion) were documented. Correlations between these factors and preoperative valgus stress angle were analyzed.

RESULTS: A negative correlation was found between preoperative mechanical axis angle and preoperative valgus stress angle (p < 0.01, r = -0.38), and a positive correlation was found between the preoperative mechanical tibial angle and preoperative valgus stress angle (p = 0.01, r = 0.19).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that preoperative varus deformity and proximal tibial vara (measured by preoperative mechanical axis angle and mechanical tibial angle, respectively) are correlated with reducibility of varus deformity (measured by preoperative valgus stress angle), and clinical parameters (age, range of motion, duration of pain and body mass index) and other radiologic parameters (osteophyte size, severity of osteoarthritis and angulation of distal femoral joint surface) were not significantly correlated with reducibility of varus deformity.

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