The influence of scenario-based training and real-time audiovisual feedback on out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Bentley J Bobrow, Tyler F Vadeboncoeur, Uwe Stolz, Annemarie E Silver, John M Tobin, Scott A Crawford, Terence K Mason, Jerome Schirmer, Gary A Smith, Daniel W Spaite
Annals of Emergency Medicine 2013, 62 (1): 47-56.e1

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess whether an initiative to optimize out-of-hospital provider cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality is associated with improved CPR quality and increased survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

METHODS: This was a before-after study of consecutive adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Data were obtained from out-of-hospital forms and defibrillators. Phase 1 included 18 months with real-time audiovisual feedback disabled (October 2008 to March 2010). Phase 2 included 16 months (May 2010 to September 2011) after scenario-based training of 373 professional rescuers and real-time audiovisual feedback enabled. The effect of interventions on survival to hospital discharge was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Multiple imputation of missing data was used to analyze the effect of interventions on CPR quality.

RESULTS: Analysis included 484 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (phase 1 232; phase 2 252). Median age was 68 years (interquartile range 56-79); 66.5% were men. CPR quality measures improved significantly from phase 1 to phase 2: Mean chest compression rate decreased from 128 to 106 chest compressions per minute (difference -23 chest compressions; 95% confidence interval [CI] -26 to -19 chest compressions); mean chest compression depth increased from 1.78 to 2.15 inches (difference 0.38 inches; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47 inches); median chest compression fraction increased from 66.2% to 83.7% (difference 17.6%; 95% CI 15.0% to 20.1%); median preshock pause decreased from 26.9 to 15.5 seconds (difference -11.4 seconds; 95% CI -15.7 to -7.2 seconds), and mean ventilation rate decreased from 11.7 to 9.5/minute (difference -2.2/minute; 95% CI -3.9 to -0.5/minute). All-rhythms survival increased from phase 1 to phase 2 (20/231, 8.7% versus 35/252, 13.9%; difference 5.2%; 95% CI -0.4% to 10.8%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.72 (95% CI 1.15 to 6.41), controlling for initial rhythm, witnessed arrest, age, minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation protocol compliance, and provision of therapeutic hypothermia. Witnessed arrests/shockable rhythms survival was 26.3% (15/57) for phase 1 and 55.6% (20/36) for phase 2 (difference 29.2%; 95% CI 9.4% to 49.1%).

CONCLUSION: Implementation of resuscitation training combined with real-time audiovisual feedback was independently associated with improved CPR quality, an increase in survival, and favorable functional outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

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