Effect of insulin on the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)

J K Y Lam, Y Wang, S W M Shiu, Y Wong, D J Betteridge, K C B Tan
Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association 2013, 30 (6): 702-9

AIMS: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. RAGE transcript splicing generates a number of isoforms, including a full-length membrane-bound receptor and a soluble isoform, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Soluble forms of the receptor (sRAGE) can also be formed by ectodomain shedding of the membrane-associated receptor. We have evaluated serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE in Chinese patients with Type 1 diabetes and investigated the effect of insulin on the generation of esRAGE and sRAGE in vitro.

METHODS: Serum sRAGE and esRAGE were measured by ELISA. The in vitro effect of insulin was investigated by incubating THP-1 macrophages with insulin and RAGE isoforms in cell lysate and conditioned media determined.

RESULTS: In patients with diabetes, both serum esRAGE and sRAGE were significantly higher than in age-matched healthy subjects without diabetes. In vitro, insulin increased esRAGE and total RAGE isoform expression in cell lysate on a western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed an increase in esRAGE and full-length RAGE mRNA. This was accompanied by an increase in esRAGE and sRAGE in cell conditioned media. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with a general metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 significantly reduced the production of sRAGE, suggesting that insulin also increased the cleavage of full-length cell surface RAGE to form sRAGE.

CONCLUSIONS: Chinese patients with Type 1 diabetes have higher serum levels of esRAGE and sRAGE. In vitro, insulin not only increases both full-length RAGE and esRAGE expression, but can also stimulate the shedding of sRAGE from the membrane-bound receptor.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"