Cardiovascular risk among stable individuals suspected of having coronary artery disease with no modifiable risk factors: results from an international multicenter study of 5262 patients

Jonathon Leipsic, Carolyn M Taylor, Gilat Grunau, Brett G Heilbron, G B John Mancini, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Victor Y Cheng, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Augustin Delago, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Ricardo Cury, Gudrun Feuchtner, Yong-Jin Kim, Philipp A Kaufmann, Fay Y Lin, Erica Maffei, Gilbert Raff, Leslee J Shaw, Todd C Villines, James K Min
Radiology 2013, 267 (3): 718-26

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence, extent, severity, and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients suspected of having CAD but with no medically modifiable risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval or waiver of consent was obtained at each center. This study was HIPAA compliant. From an international multicenter cohort study of 27 125 subjects undergoing coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography from 12 centers, 5262 patients without known CAD and without modifiable risk factors were identified. CAD severity was defined as none (0%), mild (1%-49%), or obstructive (≥ 50%) on a per-patient, per-vessel, and per-segment basis. CAD presence, extent, and severity were related to incidence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) by using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 2.3 years ± 1.2 (standard deviation), MACE occurred in 106 patients. CAD was common for nonobstructive (n = 1452, 27%) and obstructive (n = 629, 12%) CAD. In risk-adjusted analysis, per-patient obstructive CAD (hazard ratio [HR], 6.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.68, 12.00; P ≤ .001) was related to MACE. MACE was associated with a dose-response relationship to the number of vessels exhibiting obstructive CAD, increasing risk for obstructive one-vessel (HR, 6.11; 95% CI: 3.22, 11.6; P ≤ .001), two-vessel (HR, 5.86; 95% CI: 2.75, 12.5; P ≤ .0001), or three-vessel or left main (HR, 11.69; 95% CI: 5.38, 25.4; P ≤ .001) CAD. The increased hazard for MACE of obstructive disease holds true for symptomatic (HR, 11.9; 95% CI: 4.81, 29.6; P ≤ .001) and asymptomatic (HR, 6.3; 95% CI: 2.4, 16.7; P ≤ .001) patients. No CAD at coronary CT angiography was associated with a low annualized MACE rate: 0.31% versus 2.06% with obstructive disease.

CONCLUSION: Among individuals suspected of having CAD but without modifiable risk factors, CAD is common, with significantly increased hazards for MACE and mortality.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"