Renovascular trauma: risk assessment, surgical management, and outcome

P R Carroll, J W McAninch, P Klosterman, M Greenblatt
Journal of Trauma 1990, 30 (5): 547-52; discussion 553-4
In an effort to define better the indications for renovascular repair, risk factors for renal loss, and eventual patient outcome, records of 36 patients with 37 renovascular injuries were reviewed. The renal artery alone was injured in nine kidneys, the renal vein alone in 12, and both the main renal vein and artery in six. Segmental vessel injuries alone were noted in ten kidneys. Two patients died before repair could be attempted. Eleven nephrectomies were performed. Vascular repair was attempted in the remaining 24 renal units either as isolated procedures or combined with renal parenchymal repair. Compared to 78 patients with only parenchymal injuries, those with renovascular injuries were more severely injured as assessed by nephrectomy rate, Injury Severity Score, transfusion requirement, number of major complications, and death. Fifteen patients sustained main renal artery injuries of whom six underwent immediate nephrectomy. Nine attempts at repair were performed. Six patients had either persistent thrombosis or preservation of only marginal function. One patient died in the immediate postoperative period of associated injuries. Complete renal preservation was achieved in only two kidneys (14%). Nephrectomy was required for the management of three of 12 main renal vein injuries, but in none of ten patients with segmental vascular injuries.

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