Acute management of calcium disorders

Reid P Groman
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 2012, 27 (4): 167-71
Acute management of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia is an important part of small-animal emergency practice. In addition to hypercalcemia of malignancy and hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D toxicosis is becoming more common in companion animals as new and improved rodenticides and human pharmaceutical preparations (vitamin D analog skin creams) become more available. This article provides complete details regarding the emergency management of life-threatening hypercalcemia with focus on vitamin D intoxication. At the other end of the spectrum, hypocalcemic emergencies, such as periparturient hypocalcemia (eclampsia), may be less common but are often life threatening. This article contains guidelines for the emergency management of hypocalcemia. In summary, the urgent care of calcium disorders in small animals is reviewed.

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