Efficacy study of CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery combined with CIK cell immunotherapy for advanced refractory lung cancer

Yuan-Yuan Wang, Yi-Shan Wang, Tao Liu, Ke Yang, Gui-Qing Yang, Han-Chen Liu, Shan-Shan Wang, Jia-Lin Yang
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 2013, 5 (2): 453-456
CyberKnife (CK), hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery, is a preferred option for the treatment of advanced refractory lung cancer which is usually inoperable. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell immunotherapy has a marked radiosensitization effect which aids the elimination of residual tumor cells in distant areas. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CK alone and combined with CIK cell therapy for advanced refractory lung cancer. In one year, 22 patients with advanced lung cancer underwent CK therapy at a CyberKnife Center. Of these patients, 11 received CIK cell therapy before or after the CK therapy course. The median prescribed dose in the combined CK and CIK group was 35 Gy (mean, 33.8±5.0 Gy) with a median number of fractions of 5. The median dose for patients who underwent CK alone was 35 Gy (mean, 35.2±6.0 Gy). CIK cell therapy was administered according to the condition of each patient, generally 2 continuous therapeutic sessions in 2 months. The median follow-up period was 3 months. The preliminary curative efficiency rate was 81.82% for patients who underwent CK/CIK and 72.73% for those who received CK alone, according to radiographic re-examination (P>0.05). The median improvement in the Karnofsky scores of the CK/CIK group was 20 (18±10.51) compared with 10 (8.6±11.85) for those who underwent CK alone (P<0.05). The median expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) before and after treatment was 40.81 and 12.21 ng/ml, respectively, for the CK/CIK group compared with 39.04 and 26.36 ng/ml for CK alone. The median percentage of phenotype expression of the CIK cells (CD3(+)/CD8(+) and CD3(+)/CD56(+)) in the patients who underwent CK/CIK was recorded as 64.35% (57.08±16.94%) and 15.27% (18.80±7.00%), respectively, prior to transfusion. The preliminary results of the present study suggest that CK combined with CIK cell immunotherapy improved the short-term outcomes of patients for curative efficacy, Karnofsky scores, tumor marker levels and immune status compared with alternative CK treatments, although further studies are required.

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