Demineralized bone. Implant resorption with long-term follow-up

D M Toriumi, W F Larrabee, J W Walike, D J Millay, D W Eisele
Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery 1990, 116 (6): 676-80
The osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone have stimulated its use in facial skeletal augmentation and reconstruction. Demineralized bone has been shown to induce phenotypic conversion of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, with bone formation within 29 days (osteoinduction). In this clinical study, 75 demineralized bone implants were followed up from 1 to 48 months (average follow-up, 14.3 months). There were 41 major dorsal implants, with an average degree of resorption of 50.7%. Eight dorsal implants were followed up for more than 24 months, with an 82.5% degree of resorption. Overall resorption for all implants was 49%. Major factors contributing to implant resorption included lack of surrounding mesenchymal cells and inadequate contact between host tissue and bone-inducing surface area. Other factors included infection, poor vascularity, and compression of the implant. Demineralized bone has an unacceptably high resorption rate and should only be used in highly selective cases where the implant can be positioned in a site rich in primitive mesenchymal or bone-forming cells.

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