Epitrochlear lymph nodes: Anatomy, clinical aspects, and sonography features. Pictorial essay().
The normal and abnormal aspects of the epitrochlear lymphatic station are not well known, mainly because the axillary basin is commonly regarded as the primary lymphatic target of all upper limb disorders. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a review of specific cases, the normal and abnormal findings that can emerge during ultrasonographic (US) and color-Doppler US exploration of the epitrochlear region. We illustrate the normal anatomy and variations of the epitrochlear lymph nodes and highlight the functional role of this lymphatic station. Subsequently we describe the US and color-Doppler US findings. A number of different abnormalities are reviewed, including metastases (mainly from upper limb cutaneous melanomas), Hodgkin disease, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphadenitis (cat-scratch disease, foreign bodies, and IV drug abuse). Measures are suggested to avoid interpretative pitfalls and to carry out an effective differential diagnosis of elbow masses. This article represents a pictorial essay of the US and color-Doppler US features of various epitrochlear lymph node abnormalities that clinicians may not be familiar with.
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