Stroke seasonality associations with subtype, etiology and laboratory results in the Ludwigshafen Stroke Study (LuSSt)

Frederick Palm, Michael Dos Santos, Christian Urbanek, Matthias Greulich, Kathrin Zimmer, Anton Safer, Armin Jürgen Grau, Heiko Becher
European Journal of Epidemiology 2013, 28 (5): 373-81
Data on seasonal differences in stroke incidence are conflicting. Little is known about seasonal variability in etiological stroke subtypes and population-based data on possible trigger factors are lacking. The Ludwigshafen Stroke Study is a prospective population-based stroke registry. All residents of the city of Ludwigshafen who suffer from acute stroke or TIA are registered. Patients with first-ever stroke (FES) were included for the present analysis. Between January 1, 2006 and December 31st, 2010, 1,779 patients (age 71.7 ± 13.4 years (mean + standard deviation; 897 (50.4 %) women) suffered a FES. Incidence for FES was lowest in summer (reference) with significantly higher rates in winter (rate ratio (RR) 1.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.37) and spring (RR 1.21 95 % CI 1.06-1.38). First-ever ischemic stroke (FEIS) was more common in winter (RR 1.16, 95 %CI 1.01-1.34) and first-ever intracerebral haemorrhage (FE-ICH) was more frequent in spring (RR 2.0, 95 %CI 1.24-3.22) than in summer. In FES, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on admission (SBP/DBP) showed significant variation with lowest values in summer (SBP: p = 0.02; DBP p = 0.05). In subtypes of FEIS, cardioembolism tended to be more common in winter (p = 0.14). There were no differences in risk factor prevalence between seasons. Leukocyte count on admission was lowest in summer (8.2 ± 1.4/μl) and highest in winter (8.9 ± 1.9/μl; p = 0.008). The hematocrit showed a similar trend (p = 0.06). Our data show higher incidence rates for FES in winter and spring, for FEIS in winter and for FE-ICH in spring. Variations in blood pressure on admission and leukocyte counts were associated with these findings and may possibly contribute to seasonal stroke variability.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"