Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): retrospective analysis of a 7-year clinical experience

Nenad Vanis, Aida Saray, Srdjan Gornjakovic, Rusmir Mesihovic
Acta Informatica Medica: AIM 2012, 20 (4): 235-7

AIMS: Since its description in 1980, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the modality of choice for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate current indications and complications associated with PEG feeding.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who referred to our endoscopic unit of the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Medical Center University of Sarajevo for PEG tube placement over a period of 7 years. Medical records of 359 patients dealing with PEG tube placement were reviewed to assess indications, technical success, complications and the need for repeat procedures.

RESULTS: The indications for enteral feeding tube placement were malignancy in 44% (n=158), of which 61% (n=97) patients were suffering of head and neck cancer and 39% (n=61) of other malignancy. Central nervous disease was the indication in 48.7 % (n=175) of patients. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) accounted for 20% (n=73), head injury for 16% (n=59) and cerebral palsy for 11% (n=38). In 6.13% (n=22) of patients minor complications occur which included wound infection (0.8%), inadvertent PEG removal (2.5%) and tube blockage (1.1%). 11 patients experienced major complications including hemorrhage, tube migration and perforation. There were no deaths related to PEG procedure placement and the overall 30-day mortality rate due to primary disease was 15.8%. Oral feeding was resumed in 23% of the patients and the tube was removed subsequently after 6 -12 months.

CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a save and minimally invasive endoscopic procedure associated with a low morbidity (9.2%) rate, easy to follow-up and to replace when blockage occurs. Over a seven-year period we noticed an increase of 63% in PEG placement at our department.

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