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Prevalence and spot urine risk factors for renal stones in children taking topiramate.

INTRODUCTION: Topiramate (TPM), an anti-epileptic drug with >4 million users, increases renal stones in adults. We screened outpatient TPM-treated children without history of stones to estimate the prevalence of renal stones and to characterize urine stone-risk profiles.

METHODS: Children taking TPM ≥1 month underwent an interview, renal ultrasound, and spot urine testing in this prospective study. Normal spot urine values were defined as: calcium/creatinine ratio ≤0.20 mg/mg (>12 months) or ≤0.60 mg/mg (≤12 months), citrate/creatinine ratio >0.50 mg/mg, and pH ≤ 6.7.

RESULTS: Of 41 patients with average age of 9.2 years (range 0.5-18.7), mean TPM dose of 8.0 mg/kg/day (range 1.4-23.6), and mean treatment duration of 27 months (range 1-112), two (4.9%) had renal stones. The majority of children taking TPM had lithogenic abnormalities on spot urine testing, including 21 (51%) with hypercalciuria, 38 (93%) with hypocitraturia, and 28 (68%) with pH ≥ 6.7. Hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia were independent of TPM dose and duration; urine pH increased with dose. 24-h urine parameters improved in 1 stone-former once TPM was weaned.

CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic stones were found in 2/41 (4.8%) children taking TPM. Risk factors for stones were present in the spot urine of most children, including hypocitraturia (93%) and hypercalciuria (51%), independent of TPM dose and duration. High urine pH, found in 68%, correlated with TPM dose. Pediatric specialists should be aware of increased risks for stones, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and alkaline urine in children taking TPM.

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