Thickened area of external granular layer and Ki-67 positive focus are early events of medulloblastoma in Ptch1⁺/⁻ mice

Saori Matsuo, Miwa Takahashi, Kaoru Inoue, Kei Tamura, Kaoru Irie, Yukio Kodama, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Midori Yoshida
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie 2013, 65 (6): 863-73
Patched1 (Ptch1) encodes a receptor for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and is major gene related to human medulloblastoma (MB) in the Shh subgroup. MB is thought to arise from residual granule cell precursors (GCPs) located in the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum. As the detailed preneoplastic changes of MB remain obscure, we immunohistochemically clarified the derived cell, early events of MBs, and the cerebellar developmental processes of Ptch1(+/-) (Ptch1) mice, an animal model of human MB of the Shh subgroup. In Ptch1 mice, the earliest proliferative lesions were detected at PND10 as focal thickened areas of outer layer of the EGL. This area was composed of GCP-like cells with atypia and nuclei disarrangement. In the latter cerebellar developmental period, GCP-like cell foci were detected at high incidence in the outermost area of the cerebellum. Their localization and morphological similarities indicated that the foci were derived from GCPs in the EGL. There were two types of the foci. A Ki-67-positive focus was found in Ptch1 mice only. This type resembled the GCPs in the outer layer of EGL characterized by having proliferating activity and a lack of neuronal differentiation. Another type of focus, Ki-67-negative, was observed in both genotypes and exhibited many of the same features of mature internal granule cells, suggesting that the focus had no preneoplastic potential. Due to morphological, immunohistochemical characteristics, our results indicate that the focal thickened area of EGL and Ki-67-positive foci are preneoplastic lesions of MB.

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