COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lower health related quality of life and psychosocial difficulties in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis—is snoring a marker of severity?

Cortney Wolfe-Christensen, Larisa G Kovacevic, Jelena Mirkovic, Yegappan Lakshmanan
Journal of Urology 2013, 190 (4): 1501-4
23357215

PURPOSE: Sleep disordered breathing in children is linked to numerous negative psychosocial consequences, including lower health related quality of life, increased behavioral problems and impaired neuropsychological functioning. We examined whether snoring, which is the least severe form of sleep disordered breathing, or health related quality of life could account for the increased rate of psychosocial difficulty in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis seen at an outpatient pediatric urology clinic completed measures of health related quality of life (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome-18-Item Questionnaire), sleep disordered breathing (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire) and psychosocial difficulty (Pediatric Symptom Checklist). Patients were categorized into 2 groups (snoring vs no snoring) based on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist snoring subscale score.

RESULTS: Included in the study were 62 males and 45 females with a mean ± SD age of 9.09 ± 2.58 years and a mean body mass index of 21.00 ± 6.93 kg/m(2) (range 13 to 49). The sample was evenly split between 56 snorers (52.3%) and 51 nonsnorers (47.7%). Compared to children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis who did not snore, MANCOVA results revealed that patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis who snored had significantly more externalizing problems and total psychosocial problems, in addition to significantly more impairment in all areas of health related quality of life.

CONCLUSIONS: Snoring in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis puts them at increased risk for behavioral and psychosocial problems, in addition to impaired health related quality of life. These findings support the need for future studies of the neurological links between sleep disordered breathing and monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

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