Self-perceived changes in oral health-related quality of life after receiving different types of conventional prosthetic treatments: a cohort follow-up study

Javier Montero, Raquel Castillo-Oyagüe, Christopher D Lynch, Alberto Albaladejo, Antonio Castaño
Journal of Dentistry 2013, 41 (6): 493-503

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) reported by subjects treated with conventional prostheses.

METHODS: A consecutive sample of 153 patients seeking prosthodontic rehabilitation was recruited. Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related factors (Eichner Index; number of occlusal, aesthetic, and lost units) were registered. Baseline impacts on OHRQoL were collected using the OHIP-14 questionnaire. One month after treatment, the participants answered whether the prostheses had generated better, equal, or poorer effects within the 14 items of a retrospective scale (Post-OHIP). The study patients were compared with the reference population (P-population; n=123) in terms of OHRQoL. Such P-population consisted of Spanish adults wearing conventional dental prostheses who were not seeking any dental treatment. The reliability and validity of the tests applied and the factor structure of the Post-OHIP were investigated. A Poisson regression model was calculated to predict what items would change favourably after treatment.

RESULTS: Four prosthetic cohorts were established according to the types of rehabilitations performed: 1-FDPs: metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses; 2-M-RPDs: metal-based removable partial dentures; 3-ADs: acrylic partial dentures and 4-CDs: complete dentures. Both tests confirmed adequate psychometric properties. Most items of the Post-OHIP consistently loaded on a single factor. Patients requiring ADs or CDs reported significantly lower baseline OHRQoL than those needing M-RPDs or FDPs. Pain/discomfort was the only hampering issue subsequent to removable rehabilitation. M-RPDs are expected to provide the significantly highest therapeutic improvements.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients perceived benefits in chewing ability, aesthetics and satisfaction with their mouth after receiving conventional dental prostheses.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Conventional prosthetic therapy enhances patients' overall well-being although it can cause discomfort and chewing dysfunction in more than 20% of subjects. Metal-based removable partial dentures are the most predictable in terms of patient satisfaction. The higher the clinical impairment felt by patients, the higher the increase in OHRQoL after rehabilitation.

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