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Peritoneal dialysis in the pediatric intensive care unit setting: techniques, quantitations and outcomes

Melvin Bonilla-Félix
Blood Purification 2013, 35 (1): 77-80
23343550
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (ICU). Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is frequently needed in children in whom supportive therapy is not enough to satisfy their metabolic demands or to be able to provide adequate nutrition. The decision to begin dialysis should not be delayed since experience in infants shows that the shorter the time from the insult to the beginning of dialysis, the higher the survival rate. As the use of continuous RRT in pediatric patients in the ICU has almost tripled, the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and intermittent hemodialysis has markedly decreased. The patient's age seems to be the most important factor influencing the decision on the choice of dialysis modality. PD is still the most common modality used in patients younger than 6 years of age. The relatively low cost, technical simplicity, no need for anticoagulation or placement of central venous catheters, and excellent tolerance in hemodynamically unstable patients are among the most significant advantages of PD. Much controversy exists regarding the adequacy of PD in hypercatabolic patients in the ICU. Nonetheless, when Kt/V has been applied to acutely ill children, it has been shown that PD can provide adequate clearances for most infants. The outcomes of critically ill patients with AKI treated with PD are comparable to other dialysis modalities. Therefore, the decision about dialysis modality should be based on local expertise, resources available, and patient's clinical status.

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