In infants and young children, urinary tract infections (UTI) often present with unspecific symptoms. Appropriate techniques of urine sampling play an important role for accurate microbiological diagnosis. In infants urine sampling by bladder puncture or transurethral catheter is recommended. In young infants with suspected pyelonephritis, calculated antibiotic treatment should be initiated parenterally with a combination of a third generation cephalosporin or an aminoglycoside with ampicillin. After the age of 3-6 months group 3 oral cephalosporins can be used in uncomplicated pyelonephritis. With the first febrile UTI early sonography is recommended to provide information about renal parenchymal involvement and to exclude malformations of the kidneys and urinary tract. Strategies for the recognition of vesicoureteral reflux and renal damage are under discussion. Recently published guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics for the diagnosis and management of UTI in febrile children and infants aged 2-24 months will most likely influence the still pending German guidelines.
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