Oridonin induces apoptosis, inhibits migration and invasion on highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells

Shengpeng Wang, Zhangfeng Zhong, Jianbo Wan, Wen Tan, Guosheng Wu, Meiwan Chen, Yitao Wang
American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2013, 41 (1): 177-96
Oridonin, a natural tetracycline diterpenoid isolated from Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has been reported to be a potent cytotoxic agent against a wide variety of tumors. However, its effect on highly metastatic breast cancer cells has not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the effects of oridonin on growth, migration and invasion of highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells. Our results showed that oridonin induced potent growth inhibition on human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to the flow cytometric analysis, oridonin suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and caused accumulation of MDA-MB-231 cells in the Sub-G1 phase. The induced apoptotic effect of oridonin was further confirmed by a morphologic characteristics assay and TUNEL assay. Oridonin triggered the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, caspase-8, NF-κB (p65), IKKα, IKKβ, phospho-mTOR, and increased expression level of cleaved PARP, Fas and PPARγ in a time-dependent manner. Immunofluorescent analysis showed that γH2AX-containing nuclear foci were significant in oridonin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Meanwhile, oridonin significantly suppressed MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion, decreased MMP-2/MMP-9 activation and inhibited the expression of Integrin β1 and FAK. In conclusion, oridonin inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, which might be related to DNA damage and activation of intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, oridonin also inhibited tumor invasion and metastasis in vitro possibly via decreasing the expression of MMPs and regulating the Integrin β1/FAK pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.

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