Curcumin inhibits TGF-β1-induced MMP-9 and invasion through ERK and Smad signaling in breast cancer MDA- MB-231 cells

Na Mo, Zheng-Qian Li, Jing Li, You-De Cao
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP 2012, 13 (11): 5709-14

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of curcumin on matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion ability induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in MDA-MB-231 cells and potential mechanisms.

METHODS: Human breast cancer MDA- MB-231 cells were used with the CCK-8 assay to measure the cytotoxicity of curcumin. After treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1, with or without curcumin (≤10 μM), cell invasion was checked by transwell chamber. The effects of curcumin on TGF-β1-stimulated MMP-9 and phosphorylation of Smad2, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) were examined by Western blotting. Supernatant liquid were collected to analyze the activity of MMP-9 via zymography. Following treatment with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK, and SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, Western blotting and zymography were employed to examine MMP-9 expression and activity, respectively.

RESULTS: Low dose curcumin (≤10 μM) did not show any obvious toxicity to the cells, while 0~10 μmol/L caused a concentration-dependent reduction in cell invasion provoked by TGF-β1. Curcumin also markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated MMP-9 and activation of Smad2, ERK1/2 and p38 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, PD98059, but not SB203580, showed a similar pattern of inhibition of MMP-9 expression.

CONCLUSION: Curcumin inhibited TGF-β1-stimulated MMP-9 and the invasive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells, possibly associated with TGF-β/Smad and TGF-β/ERK signaling.

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