Early start of combination therapy with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis prolongs survival and reduces cardiovascular events in male patients

Hiromichi Suzuki, Hitosi Hoshi, Tsutomu Inoue, Tomohiro Kikuta, Masahiro Tsuda, Tsuneo Takenaka
Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis 2012, 28: 68-73
Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been recommended for initial dialysis therapy, a larger proportion of patients with end-stage renal disease choose hemodialysis (HD) instead. Several previous studies comparing the outcomes of these two therapies, including survival rates and cardiovascular events, have not clearly demonstrated the superiority of one over the other. Our recent study indicated that, compared with HD or PD alone, renal replacement therapy with HD and PD in combination prolongs survival and reduces cardiovascular events. However, the use of combination dialysis therapy is not widely accepted. We set out to analyze the efficacy of combination dialysis therapy with PD and HD in patients who started with PD as initial dialysis therapy. Our single-center retrospective cohort study included 401 patients (165 women, 236 men; 61 +/- 12 and 62 +/- 9 years of age respectively) who started PD during 1995-2005. Chart and electronic databases were used to obtain information on the course of dialysis therapy, including mortality and cardiovascular events. Treatment with HD and PD in combination was used in 103 patients. During 5 years of follow-up after the start of PD, 80 patients died. We observed no differences in cumulative mortality between the men (49, 200%) and women (31, 18%) and no difference in the cumulative incidence of catheter removal for various reasons (35% vs. 31%). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the time of HD start between men and women. In men on PD, HD therapy was started 22 +/- 2 months after the start of PD; in women, it was started 38 +/- 7 months after PD start. Although women have a survival advantage in both the general and the dialysis patient population, women on PD experience mortality similar to that in men. The reasons for those findings have not been fully explained. The present analysis suggests that an early start to HD therapy will prolong the survival of patients on PD, especially men.

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