Familial isolated pituitary adenomas: an emerging clinical entity

F Martucci, G Trivellin, M Korbonits
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2012, 35 (11): 1003-14
Familial pituitary tumors are increasingly recognized. While some of these cases are related to wellknown syndromic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or Carney complex, others belong to the familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) patient group. The discovery of heterozygous, loss-of-function germline mutations in the gene encoding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) in 2006 has subsequently enabled the identification of a mutation in this gene in 20% of FIPA families and 20% of childhood-onset simplex soma- totroph adenomas. The exact mechanism by which the lack of AIP leads to pituitary adenomas is not clear. AIP mutations cause a low penetrance autosomal dominant disease with often a distinct phenotype characterized by young-onset, aggressive, large GH, mixed GH and PRL or PRL-secreting adenomas. This review aims to summarize currently available clinical data on AIP mutation-positive and negative FIPA patients.

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