[Value of detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities]

Shu-juan Wang, Zhi-ying Gao, Yan-ping Lu, Ya-li Li, Yan-qin You, Li-wen Zhang, Long-xia Wang, Hong Xu
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi 2012, 47 (11): 808-12

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of detection of fetal cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.

METHODS: The plasma from 3200 gravidas (singleton with 20.3 ± 3.8 gestational weeks) was collected from April 1(st) 2011 to May 30(th) 2012. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) To tally 1720 cases were included in the high-risk serological screening group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got high-risk results in serological screening; (2) To tally 1310 cases were included in the advanced age group, in which women's age was more than 35 years; (3) To tally 170 cases were included in the supplementary group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got low-risk results in serological screening, or women who didn't take serological screening tests. All the 3030 gravidas in group 1 and 2 didn't take invasive prenatal diagnosis because of fear of abortion or short of prenatal diagnosis. Cff-DNA were detected by next generation sequencing in Shenzhen BGI Genomics Center for clinical laboratory. Amniocentesis and karyotype analysis were provided to the positive cases and women with negative results were followed-up by telephone.

RESULTS: (1) The 3200 cases took cff-DNA detection, and 31 cases got positive results, including 27 cases of trisomy 21 and 4 cases of trisomy 18. Sixteen cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the high-risk serological screening group. 7 cases of trisomy 21 and 2 cases of trisomy 18 were in the advanced age group. Four cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the supplementary group. (2) And the 84% (26/31) cff-DNA detecting positive cases received amniocentesis. In the 27 trisomy 21 positive cases, 23 received amniocentesis and got karyotype of 47XN, +21, with the diagnostic accordance rate of 100%. In the 4 cases who didn't take karyotype analysis, fetal anomaly (ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia and choroid plexus cyst) was found in 1 case before 20 gestational weeks; intrauterine fetal demise happened in 1 case before getting the result; 2 other cases who already had healthy children took abortion in the local hospital without taking amniocentesis. In the 4 trisomy 18 positive cases, 3 took amniocentesis, 2 of which were trisomy 18 and took abortion, the other was chimera (46, XN/47, XN, +18) with only 2% cells of trisomy 18, with no malformation found after delivery. Hypoevolutism (3 weeks less than gestational week), general hydropsy and intrauterine fetal demise happened before the other case took amniocentesis. (3) Follow up of cff-DNA negative cases:until May 30(th) 2012, no Down's baby was found in the 1230 cases with cff-DNA test negative results.

CONCLUSIONS: (1) The non-invasive fetal trisomy test (NIFTY) by next generation sequencing is a safe, accurate and high throughput method for the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy-21. (2) Use NIFTY as a further screening for pregnant women with high-risk serological screening results could lower invasive prenatal diagnosis rate. (3) Cases with positive NIFTY test results should receive amniocentesis and karyotype analysis to confirm the diagnosis before abortion.

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