JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Cardiorenal syndrome in critical care: the acute cardiorenal and renocardiac syndromes

Dinna N Cruz
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2013, 20 (1): 56-66
23265597
Heart and kidney disease often coexist in the same patient, and observational studies have shown that cardiac disease can directly contribute to worsening kidney function and vice versa. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is defined as a complex pathophysiological disorder of the heart and the kidneys in which acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction in the other organ. This has been recently classified into five subtypes on the basis of the primary organ dysfunction (heart or kidney) and on whether the organ dysfunction is acute or chronic. Of particular interest to the critical care specialist are CRS type 1 (acute cardiorenal syndrome) and type 3 (acute renocardiac syndrome). CRS type 1 is characterized by an acute deterioration in cardiac function that leads to acute kidney injury (AKI); in CRS type 3, AKI leads to acute cardiac injury and/or dysfunction, such as cardiac ischemic syndromes, congestive heart failure, or arrhythmia. Both subtypes are encountered in high-acuity medical units; in particular, CRS type 1 is commonly seen in the coronary care unit and cardiothoracic intensive care unit. This paper will provide a concise review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention strategies, and selected kidney management aspects for these two acute CRS subtypes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
23265597
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"