Evaluating sleepiness-related daytime function by querying wakefulness inability and fatigue: Sleepiness-Wakefulness Inability and Fatigue Test (SWIFT)

R Bart Sangal
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2012 December 15, 8 (6): 701-11

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Routine assessment of daytime function in Sleep Medicine has focused on "tendency to fall asleep" in soporific circumstances, to the exclusion of "wakefulness inability" or inability to maintain wakefulness, and fatigue/tiredness/lack of energy. The objective was to establish reliability and discriminant validity of a test for wakefulness inability and fatigue, and to test its superiority against the criterion standard for evaluation of sleepiness-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).

METHODS: A 12-item self-administered instrument, the Sleepiness-Wakefulness Inability and Fatigue Test (SWIFT), was developed and administered, with ESS, to 256 adults ≥ 18 years of age (44 retook the tests a month later); consecutive patients with symptoms of sleep disorders including 286 with obstructive sleep apnea ([OSA], apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5/h sleep on polysomnography [PSG]), 49 evaluated with PSG and multiple sleep latency test for narcolepsy and 137 OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

RESULTS: SWIFT had internal consistency 0.87 and retest intraclass coefficient 0.82. Factor analysis revealed 2 factors-general wakefulness inability and fatigue (GWIF) and driving wakefulness inability and fatigue (DWIF). Normal subjects differed from patients in ESS, SWIFT, GWIF, and DWIF. SWIFT and GWIF (but not DWIF) had higher area under ROC curve, Youden's index, and better positive and negative likelihood ratios than ESS. ESS, SWIFT, GWIF, and DWIF improved with CPAP. Improvements in SWIFT, GWIF, and DWIF (but not ESS) were significantly correlated with CPAP compliance.

CONCLUSIONS: SWIFT is reliable and valid. SWIFT and its factor GWIF have a discriminant ability superior to that of the ESS.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"