Quantification of chronic functional mitral regurgitation by automated 3-dimensional peak and integrated proximal isovelocity surface area and stroke volume techniques using real-time 3-dimensional volume color Doppler echocardiography: in vitro and clinical validation

Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Shizhen Liu, Saurabh Datta, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Thomas Ryan, Stephen R Igo, Matthew S Jackson, Stephen H Little, Nathalie De Michelis, Mani A Vannan
Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging 2013 January 1, 6 (1): 125-33

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of an automated 3-dimensional (3D) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) (in vitro and patients) and stroke volume technique (patients) to assess mitral regurgitation (MR) severity using real-time volume color flow Doppler transthoracic echocardiography.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Using an in vitro model of MR, the effective regurgitant orifice area and regurgitant volume (RVol) were measured by the PISA technique using 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D (automated true 3D PISA) transthoracic echocardiography. The mean anatomic regurgitant orifice area (0.35±0.10 cm(2)) was underestimated to a greater degree by the 2D (0.12±0.05 cm(2)) than the 3D method (0.25±0.10 cm(2); P<0.001 for both). Compared with the flowmeter (40±14 mL), the RVol by 2D PISA (20±19 mL) was underestimated (P<0.001), but the 3D peak (43±16 mL) and integrated PISA-based (38±14 mL) RVol were comparable (P>0.05 for both). In patients (n=30, functional MR), 3D effective regurgitant orifice area correlated well with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging RVol r=0.84 and regurgitant fraction r=0.80. Compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging RVol (33±22 mL), the integrated PISA RVol (34±26 mL; P=0.42) was not significantly different; however, the peak PISA RVol was higher (48±27 mL; P<0.001). In addition, RVol calculated as the difference in automated mitral and aortic stroke volumes by real-time 3D volume color flow Doppler echocardiography was not significantly different from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (34±21 versus 33±22 mL; P=0.33).

CONCLUSIONS: Automated real-time 3D volume color flow Doppler based 3D PISA is more accurate than the 2D PISA method to quantify MR. In patients with functional MR, the 3D RVol by integrated PISA is more accurate than a peak PISA technique. Automated 3D stroke volume measurement can also be used as an adjunctive method to quantify MR severity.

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