[Protocol of the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock]

I M Nakashidze, N G Tsintsadze, Sh N Potskhishvili
Georgian Medical News 2012, (212): 40-5
Severe sepsis and septic shock remains the most urgent problem. In severe sepsis and septic shock should be early goal-directed resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 hrs after recognition; -appropriate diagnostic studies to ascertain causative organisms before starting antibiotics; -early administration of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy; -reassessment of antibiotic therapy with microbiology and clinical data to narrow coverage, when appropriate; -a usual 7-10 days of antibiotic therapy guided by clinical response; -source control with attention to the method that balances risks and benefits; -equivalence of crystalloid and colloid resuscitation; aggressive fluid challenge to restore mean circulating filling pressure; -vasopressor preference for norepinephrine and dopamine; -cautious use of vasopressin pending further studies; -avoiding low-dose dopamine administration for renal protection; consideration of dobutamine inotropic therapy in some clinical situations; -stress-dose steroid therapy for septic shock; use of recombinant activated protein C in patients with severe sepsis and high risk for death; -with resolution of tissue hypoperfusion and in the absence of coronary artery disease or acute hemorrhage, targeting a hemoglobin of 7-9 g/dL; -a low tidal volume and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure strategy for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; -application of a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome; -protocols for weaning and sedation, using either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation with daily interruptions/lightening; -avoidance of neuromuscular blockers, if at all possible; -maintenance of blood glucose <150 mg/dL after initial stabilization.

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