JOURNAL ARTICLE

Life events and Tourette syndrome

Tamar Steinberg, Sharona Shmuel-Baruch, Netta Horesh, Alan Apter
Comprehensive Psychiatry 2013, 54 (5): 467-73
23219489

INTRODUCTION: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Although TS is primarily biological in origin, stress-diatheses interactions most probably play a role in the course of the illness. The precise influence of the environment on this basically biological disorder is difficult to ascertain, particularly when TS is complicated by comorbidities. Among the many questions that remain unresolved are the differential impact of positive and negative events and specific subtypes of events, and the importance of major crucial events relative to minor daily ones to tic severity.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships between life events, tic severity and comorbid disorders in Tourette Syndrome (TS), including OCD, ADHD, anxiety, depression and rage attacks. Life events were classified by quantity, quality (positive or negative) and classification types of events (family, friends etc.).

SUBJECTS: Sixty patients aged 7-17 years with Tourette syndrome or a chronic tic disorder were recruited from Psychological Medicine Clinic in Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel.

INSTRUMENTS: Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; Life Experiences Survey; Brief Adolescent Life Events Scale; Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; Child Depression Inventory/Beck Depression Inventory; ADHD Rating Scale IV; Overt Aggression Scale.

RESULTS: Regarding tics and minor life events, there was a weak but significant correlation between severity of motor tics and the quantity of negative events. No significant correlation was found between tic severity and quantity of positive events. Analysis of the BALES categories yielded a significant direct correlation between severity of vocal tics and quantity of negative events involving friends. Regarding comorbidities and minor life events, highly significant correlations were found with depression and anxiety. Regarding tics and major life events, significant correlation was found between the quantity of major life events and the severity of motor tics, but not vocal tics. Regarding comorbidities and major life events, significant correlation was found between the severity of compulsions, ADHD, and aggression and the subjects' personal evaluation of the effect of negative major life events on their lives.

CONCLUSIONS: Minor life events appear to be correlated with tic severity and comorbidities in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. The lack of an association between major life events and tic severity further emphasizes the salient impact of minor life events that occur in temporal proximity to the assessment of tic severity. Clinically, the results match our impression from patient narratives wherein they "blamed" the exacerbations in tics on social interactions. The high correlation between negative life events and depression, anxiety and compulsions symptoms, were reported also in previous studies. In conclusion, These findings may have clinical implications for planning supportive psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy for this patient population.

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