Comparison of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography to two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for quantification of mitral valve prolapse in patients with severe mitral regurgitation

Masaki Izumo, Maiko Shiota, Saibal Kar, Swaminatha V Gurudevan, Kirsten Tolstrup, Robert J Siegel, Takahiro Shiota
American Journal of Cardiology 2013 February 15, 111 (4): 588-94
Real-time 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provides more accurate geometric information on the mitral valve (MV) than 2-dimensional (2D) TEE. The aim of this study was to quantify MV prolapse using real-time 3D TEE in patients with severe mitral regurgitation. In 102 patients with severe mitral regurgitation due to MV prolapse and/or flail, 2D TEE quantified MV prolapse, including prolapse gap and width in the commissural view. Three-dimensional TEE also determined prolapse gap and width with the use of the 3D en face view. On the basis of the locations of MV prolapse, all patients were classified into group 1 (pure middle leaflet prolapse, n = 50) or group 2 (involvement of medial and/or lateral prolapse, n = 52). Prolapse gap and prolapse width determined by 3D TEE were significantly greater than those by 2D TEE (all p values <0.001). The differences in prolapse gap and prolapse width between 2D TEE and 3D TEE were significantly greater in group 2 than group 1 (Δ gap 1.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.4 ± 1.8 mm, Δ width 2.5 ± 3.0 vs 4.4 ± 5.1 mm, all p values <0.01). The differences in prolapse gap and width between 2D TEE and 3D TEE were best correlated with 3D TEE-derived prolapse width (r = 0.41 and r = 0.74, respectively). Two-dimensional TEE underestimated the width of MV prolapse and leaflet gap compared to 3D TEE. Two-dimensional TEE could not detect the largest prolapse gap and width, because of the complicated anatomy of the MV. In conclusion, 3D TEE provided more precise quantification of MV prolapse than 2D TEE.

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