Transverse myelitis (TM) includes a pathobiologically heterogeneous syndrome characterized by acute or subacute spinal cord dysfunction resulting in paresis, a sensory level, and autonomic (bladder, bowel, and sexual) impairment below the level of the lesion. Etiologies for TM can be broadly classified as parainfectious, paraneoplastic, drug/toxin-induced, systemic autoimmune disorders, and acquired demyelinating diseases. We discuss the clinical evaluation, workup, and acute and long-term management of patients with TM. Additionally, we briefly discuss various disease entities that may cause TM and their salient distinguishing features, as well as disorders that may mimic TM.
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