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Amylin and the regulation of appetite and adiposity: recent advances in receptor signaling, neurobiology and pharmacology.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on recent advances in receptor signaling, neurobiology, and pharmacological interactions of amylin with nutritive status, as well as other metabolism-related regulatory signals.

RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of components of the amylin receptor complex revealed important roles for the accessory proteins of amylin receptors in energy balance. In-vitro findings point to potential novel sites of action and postreceptor signaling pathways activated by amylin. Neurobiological studies elucidated how amylin activation of hindbrain neural circuitry modulates hypothalamic signaling and responsiveness to leptin. The notion of 'amylin resistance' was addressed in several models (drug or diet-induced hyper-amylinemia). Finally, progress in the design and delivery of amylinomimetics is briefly discussed.

SUMMARY: Collectively, these mechanistic studies deepen our understanding of the role of endogenous amylin in the regulation of appetite and adiposity, and hopefully will help guide research efforts towards the development of more effective amylin-based therapies for metabolic diseases.

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