Inhaled nitric oxide attenuates the adverse effects of transfusing stored syngeneic erythrocytes in mice with endothelial dysfunction after hemorrhagic shock

Chong Lei, Binglan Yu, Mohd Shahid, Arkadi Beloiartsev, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol
Anesthesiology 2012, 117 (6): 1190-202

BACKGROUND: The authors investigated whether transfusion with stored erythrocytes would increase tissue injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mortality (adverse effects of transfusing stored erythrocytes) in a murine model of hemorrhagic shock. They tested whether the adverse effects associated with transfusing stored erythrocytes were exacerbated by endothelial dysfunction and ameliorated by inhaling nitric oxide.

METHODS: The authors studied mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD-fed; to induce endothelial dysfunction) or a standard diet for 4-6 weeks. Mice were subjected to 90 min of hemorrhagic shock, followed by resuscitation with leukoreduced syngeneic erythrocytes stored less than 24 h (fresh erythrocytes) or stored for 2 weeks (stored erythrocytes).

RESULTS: In standard-diet-fed mice at 2 h after resuscitation, transfusion with stored erythrocytes increased tissue injury more than transfusion with fresh erythrocytes. The adverse effects of transfusing stored erythrocytes were more marked in HFD-fed mice and associated with increased lactate levels and short-term mortality. Compared with fresh erythrocytes, resuscitation with stored erythrocytes was associated with a reduction in P50, increased plasma hemoglobin levels, and increased indices of inflammation and oxidative stress, effects that were exacerbated in HFD-fed mice. Inhaled nitric oxide reduced tissue injury, lactate levels, and indices of inflammation and oxidative stress and improved short-term survival in HFD-fed mice resuscitated with stored erythrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation with stored erythrocytes adversely impacts outcome in mice with hemorrhagic shock, an effect that is exacerbated in mice with endothelial dysfunction. Inhaled nitric oxide reduces tissue injury and improves short-term survival in HFD-fed mice resuscitated with stored erythrocytes.

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