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Exploring the pathophysiology of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: kisspeptin-10 stimulates serum testosterone and LH secretion in men with type 2 diabetes and mild biochemical hypogonadism

Jyothis T George, Johannes D Veldhuis, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Robert P Millar, Richard A Anderson
Clinical Endocrinology 2013, 79 (1): 100-4
23153270

RATIONALE: Low serum testosterone is commonly observed in men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but the neuroendocrine pathophysiology remains to be elucidated.

OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamic neuropeptide kisspeptin integrates metabolic signals with the reproductive axis in animal models. We hypothesized that administration of exogenous kisspeptin-10 will restore luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretion in hypotestosteronaemic men with T2DM.

PARTICIPANTS: Five hypotestosteronaemic men with T2DM (age 33·6 ± 3 years, BMI 40·6 ± 6·3, total testosterone 8·5 ± 1·0 nmol/l, LH 4·7 ± 0·7 IU/l, HbA1c 7·4±2%, duration of diabetes <5 years) and seven age-matched healthy men. EXPERIMENT 1: Mean LH increased in response to intravenous administration of kisspeptin-10 (0·3 mcg/kg bolus) both in healthy men (5·5 ± 0·8 to 13·9 ± 1·7 IU/l P < 0·001) and in men with T2DM (4·7 ± 0·7 to 10·7 ± 1·2 IU/l P = 0·02) with comparable ΔLH (P = 0·18). EXPERIMENT 2: Baseline 10-min serum sampling for LH and hourly testosterone measurements were performed in four T2DM men over 12 h. An intravenous infusion of kisspeptin-10 (4 mcg/kg/h) was administered for 11 h, 5 days later. There were increases in LH (3·9 ± 0·1 IU/l to 20·7 ± 1·1 IU/l P = 0·03) and testosterone (8·5 ± 1·0 to 11·4 ± 0·9 nmol/l, P = 0·002). LH pulse frequency increased from 0·6 ± 0·1 to 0·9 ± 0 pulses/h (P = 0·05) and pulsatile component of LH secretion from 32·1 ± 8·0 IU/l to 140·2 ± 23·0 IU/l (P = 0·007).

CONCLUSIONS: Kisspeptin-10 administration increased LH pulse frequency and LH secretion in hypotestosteronaemic men with T2DM in this proof-of-concept study, with associated increases in serum testosterone. These data suggest a potential novel therapeutic role for kisspeptin agonists in enhancing endogenous testosterone secretion in men with T2DM and central hypogonadism.

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