JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Usefulness of the combined application of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale in screening for bipolar disorder.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether combined application of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is more effective than exclusive application of either tool in screening for bipolar disorder (BD).

METHOD: The MDQ and BSDS were completed by a total of 113 patients diagnosed with BD and major depressive disorder who were experiencing a current major depressive episode. The initial diagnosis of the subject was confirmed during a 1-year follow-up period. When each MDQ and BSDS optimal cutoff score was calculated, a modified scoring method for the MDQ that considered only one item was used to increase its performance in this population. The following three combinations of the cutoff scores for the two tools were used to screen for BD: (A) The score on either the MDQ or BSDS was greater than or equal to the cutoff score; (B) the scores on both the MDQ and BSDS were greater than or equal to the cutoff score; and (C) Reducing either cutoff score by 1 point resulted in the MDQ and BSDS scores being greater than or equal to the cutoff score. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the three methods, the MDQ, and the BSDS were compared for screening BD.

RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were 0.741 and 0.844, respectively, and those for the BSDS were 0.731 and 0.742, respectively. These indicators for the combined application of the MDQ and BSDS were as follows, respectively: method A 0.901 and 0.688, method B 0.580 and 0.875, and method C 0.691 and 0.844. Method A was superior to using one measure alone as well as to methods B and C with regard to sensitivity and negative predictive values. Method A also showed a higher sensitivity for BD subtypes than did the individual tools. Compared with the use of individual instruments, method A showed a similar positive predictive value.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that combined use of the MDQ and BSDS is more effective than the individual use of either of these measures in screening for BD. The data also showed that when both tools were used, the most effective interpretation of the results in terms of screening for BD was achieved when positive scores were defined as those that were equal to or greater than the cutoff for the MDQ or BSDS.

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