Prosthetic joint infections due to Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

Eduard Tornero, Ester García-Oltra, Sebastían García-Ramiro, Juan C Martínez-Pastor, Jordi Bosch, Consuelo Climent, Laura Morata, Pilar Camacho, Josep Mensa, Alex Soriano
International Journal of Artificial Organs 2012, 35 (10): 884-92

PURPOSES: To evaluate the specific characteristics, outcome, and predictors of failure of prosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) treated with open debridement and retention of the implant.

METHODS: PJI due to S. aureus or CNS prospectively registered in a database from 1999 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. During the study period, 106 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up period was 3.8 years and for at least 2 years in all patients. The failure rate was 23.6% (25 out of 106). The only variable significantly associated with failure in the global cohort was polymicrobial infection (38.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.024). Fifty-seven (53.8%) patients had an infection due to S. aureus and 49 (46.2%) due to CNS. Among S. aureus infections, 95% corresponded to primary arthroplasties while 98% of PJIs due to CNS were after revision arthroplasties (p<0.001). C-reactive protein was significantly higher in PJI due to S. aureus (9.5 mg/dl vs. 4.9 mg/dl, p = 0.007). The rate of methicillin-resistance (8.8% vs. 59.2%, p<0.001) and fluoroquinolone-resistance (15.8% vs. 34.7%, p = 0.005) was significantly higher in CNS infections. The global failure rate was higher in S. aureus infections (28% vs. 18.3. p = 0.26). In S. aureus infections, patients diagnosed within the first 15 days after joint arthroplasty (p = 0.031) and with bacteremia (p = 0.046) had poor pro-gnosis. In CNS infections only the location of the prosthesis (knee 27.6% vs. hip 5%, p = 0.045) was associated with failure.

CONCLUSIONS: PJIs due to S. aureus were mainly in primary arthroplasties; they had a higher inflammatory response; and the strains were more susceptible to fluoroquinolones and methicillin than CNS infections. S. aureus infections had a higher failure rate than CNS infections, however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were few factors associated with failure and they were different in S. aureus and CNS infections.

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