Serum immunoglobulin A/C3 ratio predicts progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy

Jun Zhang, Cheng Wang, Ying Tang, Hui Peng, Zeng-Chun Ye, Cui-Cui Li, Tan-Qi Lou
Nephrology 2013, 18 (2): 125-31

AIM: The serum immunoglobulin A (IgA)/C3 ratio has been shown to be a good predictor of histological lesions and prognosis for patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in Japanese. But its validity in the Chinese population is unclear. We sought to explore the long-term outcomes of IgAN, its clinical and histopathological predictors in Chinese patients. In particular, the role of serum IgA/C3 ratio in the course of IgAN was addressed.

METHODS: A total of 217 biopsy-diagnosed IgAN patients were recruited into this prospective cohort with a mean follow-up of 36 months (25-75th percentile, 27-48). Sociodemographics, serum IgA/C3 level, other clinical examinations and Lee's histological grade were measured. The patients with a decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 50% or developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were defined as progression.

RESULTS: A total of 21 patients was found to progress (9.7%). In multivariate analysis, renal end point of IgAN was significantly predicted by proteinuria ≥1 g/day (relative risk (RR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-7.68), hypertension (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.07-9.29), higher Lee's histological grade (RR = 4.67, 95% CI 1.43-15.25) and serum IgA/C3 ratio ≥ 3.32 (RR = 4.31, 95% CI 1.33-13.96).

CONCLUSION: A proportion of patients with IgAN developed end stage renal disease in a Chinese group. In addition to some traditional risk factors, we also confirmed that IgA/C3 ratio is a useful predictor of poor outcomes of IgAN in Chinese patients.

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