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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: why gray and white matter.

Since it was first described in 1958, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV), has evolved tremendously. It was once considered a noninflammatory disease that affected exclusively oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the white matter of immunosuppressed individuals and was almost always fatal. Today, we understand that PML can present during the course of an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and that it affects a broader range of individuals, including patients with minimal immunosuppression and those who are treated with novel immunomodulatory medications. Furthermore, JCV-infected glial cells are frequently located at the gray matter-white matter junction or within the gray matter, causing demyelinating lesions within cortical areas. Finally, JCV variants can also infect neurons, leading to the recognition of two distinct clinical entities: JCV granule cell neuronopathy and JCV encephalopathy.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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