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Safety climate and medical errors in 62 US emergency departments.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe the incidence and types of medical errors in emergency departments (EDs) and assess the validity of a survey instrument that identifies systems factors contributing to errors in EDs.

METHODS: We conducted the National Emergency Department Safety Study in 62 urban EDs across 20 US states. We reviewed 9,821 medical records of ED patients with one of 3 conditions (myocardial infarction, asthma exacerbation, and joint dislocation) to evaluate medical errors. We also obtained surveys from 3,562 staff randomly selected from each ED; survey data were used to calculate average safety climate scores for each ED.

RESULTS: We identified 402 adverse events (incidence rate 4.1 per 100 patient visits; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7 to 4.5) and 532 near misses (incidence rate 5.4 per 100 patient visits; 95% CI 5.0 to 5.9). We judged 37% of the adverse events, and all of the near misses, to be preventable (errors); 33% of the near misses were intercepted. In multivariable models, better ED safety climate was not associated with fewer preventable adverse events (incidence rate ratio per 0.2-point increase in ED safety score 0.82; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.16) but was associated with more intercepted near misses (incidence rate ratio 1.79; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.03). We found no association between safety climate and violations of national treatment guidelines.

CONCLUSION: Among the 3 ED conditions studied, medical errors are relatively common, and one third of adverse events are preventable. Improved ED safety climate may increase the likelihood that near misses are intercepted.

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