In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential of Punica granatum leaf extract

M Velayutham Dassprakash, Renganathan Arun, Suresh K Abraham, Kumpati Premkumar
Pharmaceutical Biology 2012, 50 (12): 1523-30

CONTEXT: Several studies have reported the antioxidant activity and potential therapeutic properties of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) fruit. Medicinal properties have also been attributed to other parts of P. granatum tree, which are rich in bioactive phytochemicals.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the phytochemical characteristics, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and in vivo antigenotoxic potential of P. granatum leaf extract (PLE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro antioxidant potential of PLE was assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the total phenolic content of the samples were also determined. Thirty-six male Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups (six animals each). Group 1 (control) and group 2 mice received vehicle and genotoxin alone, respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were pretreated with PLE (400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively) prior to the administration of genotoxin. Group 6 received highest test dose of PLE. DNA damage in the bone marrow cells, hepatic LPO and antioxidants were recorded.

RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis of PLE showed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, tannins and carbohydrates. Aqueous PLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of LPO with the EC₅₀ values of 10.25, 59.88 and 20.05, respectively. A significant protective effect was observed against cyclophosphamide induced DNA damage and inhibition of hepatic LPO with concomitant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in mice pretreated with PLE.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: PLE demonstrated a significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential and hence can be a potential natural source in health and medicine.

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