Robot-assisted implantation improves the precision of component position in minimally invasive TKA

Sang-Min Kim, Youn-Soo Park, Chul-Won Ha, Seung-Jae Lim, Young-Wan Moon
Orthopedics 2012, 35 (9): e1334-9
Minimally invasive and robot-assisted procedures have potential advantages when used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this cadaveric study was to examine whether robot-assisted minimally invasive procedures improve TKA alignment after modifying the robotic techniques and instruments. Total knee arthroplasties were performed on 10 pairs of fresh cadaveric femora. Ten knees were replaced using the robot-assisted minimally invasive technique and 10 using the conventional minimally invasive technique. After prosthesis implantation, limb and prosthesis alignments were investigated by measuring mechanical axis deviation, femoral and tibial sagittal and coronal inclination, and femoral rotational alignment with 3-dimensional computed tomography scans. Postoperative alignment accuracy of the implanted prostheses was better in the robot-assisted minimally invasive TKA group than in the conventional minimally invasive TKA group as judged by the rotational alignment of the femoral component (0.7°±″.3° vs 3.6°±2.2°, respectively) and the tibial component sagittal angle (7.8°±1.1° vs 5.5°±3.6°, respectively). One sagittal inclination outlier for the tibial side existed in the robotic minimally invasive TKA group, and 2 outliers for the mechanical axis, 2 for the tibial side sagittal inclination, and 2 for the femoral rotational alignment existed in the conventional minimally invasive TKA group. Higher implanted prostheses accuracy and fewer outliers in postoperative radiographic alignments can be attained with robot-assisted TKA. Minimally invasive TKA in combination with an improved robot-assisted technique is an alternative option to compensate for the shortcomings of conventional minimally invasive TKA.

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