JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Clinical analysis of 20 cases with Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing pneumonia in China]

Jin-rong Liu, Bao-ping Xu, Hui-min Li, Ji-hang Sun, Bao-lin Tian, Shun-ying Zhao, Zai-fang Jiang
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2012, 50 (6): 431-4
22931940

OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing pneumonia (SPNP) was reported elsewhere but not in China yet. Inappropriate treatment due to poor recognition of this disease could influence its prognosis. This paper presents the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of SPNP hoping to elevate pediatrician's recognition level for this disease.

METHOD: Clinical manifestations, radiological findings, treatment and prognosis of 20 patients (9 boys, 11 girls) who had been hospitalized with SPNP in Beijing Children's Hospital from 2004-2011 were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULT: The patients included in this study aged from 9 months to 6 years [(27.9 ± 15.8) m] and were healthy before admission. They were febrile for 8 to 50 days [(27.7 ± 13.5) d] and hospital day was 24 - 55 days [(36.5 ± 8.3) d]. The general condition of all subjects was relatively poor and they all had fever and cough. One child had moderate fever and nineteen children had high fever. Dyspnea was found in sixteen children. Fine rales were found on auscultation in 18 children, among whom diffuse wheeze appeared in 4 children, and wheezy phlegm was found in two children. Signs of pleural effusion were discovered in all cases by physical examination and chest X-ray. White blood cell (WBC) count was 16.2 - 60.95×10(9)/L and neutrophil was 70.5% - 80.2% in peripheral blood routine test. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 44 - 109 mm/h [(69.6 ± 16) mm/h]and C-reactive protein (CRP) was 80 - > 160 mg/L. The pleural effusion biochemistry and routine test revealed a WBC count of 6400×10(6)/L-too much to count, polykaryocyte of 51% - 90%, glucose of 0.02 - 1.8 mmol/L, protein of 32 - 51 g/L and LDH of 5475 IU/L-or higher. Pleural effusion culture in all cases and blood culture in 2 cases was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Chest X-ray or CT revealed high density and well-distributed lobar consolidation in one lung or two lungs initially. Single or multiple low density lesions in the area of lobar consolidation were found a week later, accompanied by multiple cystic shadow or cavity at the same time or afterwards. Bulla of lung appeared later. Pleural effusions were found in all patients. Seven cases complicated with hydropneumothorax, two with otitis media, one with heart failure, one with cardiac insufficiency. Seventeen patients were treated with vancomycin or teicoplanin or linezolid two with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Other two patients had been treated with meropenem and cephalosporin antibiotics respectively before admission, and they had been at recovery stage when they were hospitalized. Thoracic close drainage and thoracoscopy were performed respectively in 18 cases and 3 cases, respectively. After a follow up of more than 6 months, chest CT showed that almost all lesions in lungs recovered during 4-6 months. No one received pneumonectomy.

CONCLUSION: SPNP has special manifestations. The incidence in infants is higher. Patients' general condition is poor and febrile course is relatively long. All patients manifested fever and cough, with a presence of dyspnea in most of them. WBC, neutrophil and CRP elevated apparently. The characteristic of pleural effusion indicates empyema. In early stage, the chest X-ray and CT showed high-density lobar lesions, followed by low-density lesions and cyst gradually. Bulla of lung and/or hydropneumothorax may appear at the late stage. But if diagnosed and treated promptly, the prognosis of SPNP was relatively good.

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