JOURNAL ARTICLE

Time-related impact of distal embolisation on myocardial perfusion and survival among patients undergoing primary angioplasty with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors: insights from the EGYPT cooperation

Giuseppe De Luca, C Michael Gibson, Kurt Huber, Dariusz Dudek, Donald Cutlip, Uwe Zeymer, Maryann Gyöngyösi, Francesco Bellandi, Marko Noc, Hans-Richard Arntz, Mauro Maioli, Gioel Gabrio Secco, Simona Zorman, H Mesquita Gabriel, Ayse Emre, Tomasz Rakowski, Arnoud W J Van't Hof
EuroIntervention 2012, 8 (4): 470-6
22917731

AIMS: Considerable interest has been focused in recent years on the role of distal embolisation as a major determinant of impaired reperfusion after primary angioplasty for STEMI. The aim of the current study was to evaluate in a large cohort of STEMI patients undergoing primary angioplasty with glycoprotein (Gp) IIb-IIIa inhibitors, whether the impact of distal embolisation on myocardial perfusion and survival may depend on time-to-treatment.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Our population is represented by 1,182 patients undergoing primary angioplasty for STEMI included in the EGYPT database. Patients were grouped according to time-to-treatment (<3 hours, 3-6 hours, >6 hours). Distal embolisation was defined as an abrupt "cutoff" in the main vessel or one of the coronary branches of the infarct-related artery, distal to the angioplasty site. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by angiography or ST-segment resolution, whereas infarct size was estimated by using peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB. Follow-up data were collected between 30 days and one year after primary angioplasty. Distal embolisation was observed in 132 patients (11.1%) and tended to occur more frequently in late presenters (p=0.067). Patients with distal embolisation less often had post-procedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow (p<0.001), post-procedural myocardial blush grade (MBG) 2-3 (p<0.001), complete ST-segment resolution (p=0.021) and larger infarct size (p=0.012). Distal embolisation was associated with a significantly higher mortality (9.2% vs. 2.7%, heart rate [HR] [95% CI]=3.41 [1.73-6.71], p<0.0001). The impact of distal embolisation on myocardial perfusion and survival persisted for all time intervals.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that among STEMI patients treated with Gp IIb-IIIa inhibitors, the negative impact of distal embolisation on myocardial perfusion and mortality is independent of the time from symptom onset to balloon angioplasty.

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