The molecular mechanisms of the effect of Dexamethasone and Cyclosporin A on TLR4 /NF-κB signaling pathway activation in oral lichen planus

Yana Ge, Ye Xu, Wenjing Sun, Zhaozhao Man, Lanlan Zhu, Xianyin Xia, Linbo Zhao, Yuzhen Zhao, Xiumei Wang
Gene 2012 October 25, 508 (2): 157-64
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling transduction pathway play important roles in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases, but its function in oral lichen planus (OLP) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB-p65 and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β by immunohistochemistry in OLP tissues, and found that TLR4 and NF-κB-p65 were significantly upregulated in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa (P<0.05). We used keratinocytes HaCaT stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate the local OLP immune environment to some extent. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses showed significant activation of TLR4 and NF-κB-p65 in the circumstance of LPS-induced inflammatory response. The high expression of TLR4 and NF-κB-p65 are correlated with expression of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05). We further showed that NF-κB could act as an anti-apoptotic molecule in OLP. We conclude that TLR4 and the NF-κB signaling pathway may interact with the perpetuation of OLP. Steroids and cyclosporine are effective in the treatment of symptomatic OLP. However, there was some weak evidence for the mechanism over Dexamethasone (DeX) and Cyclosporine A (CsA) for the palliation of symptomatic OLP. In the present study, we found that Dexamethasone and Cyclosporine A negatively regulated NF-κB signaling pathway under LPS simulation in HaCaT cells by inhibiting TLR4 expression, on the other hand, Cyclosporine A could inhibit HaCaT cell proliferation by the induction of the apoptosis of HaCaT cells to protect OLP from the destruction of epidermal cells effectively.

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