Antioxidant, antihemolytic, and inhibitory activities of endemic Primula heterochroma against Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro

Heshmatollah Alinezhad, Mahboobeh Zare, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Alireza Naqinezhad, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Pharmaceutical Biology 2012, 50 (11): 1391-6

CONTEXT: The genus Primula (Primulaceae) has been used in traditional medicine to treat convulsion and microbial or viral infections.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluate antioxidant, antihemolytic, and protective effects of flavonoid-rich fractions of endemic Primula heterochroma Stapf. (Primulaceae) against Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerial parts of plant were defatted and extracted with 60% acetone. Then, 60% acetone extract was fractionated sequentially with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. Antioxidant activity of fractions was evaluated by employing six different assays, i.e., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activities and hemoglobin-induced linoleic acid system and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat brain. Also, its antihemolytic activity was determined using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis in rat erythrocyts.

RESULTS: Among the flavonoid-rich fractions of Primula heterochroma, aqueous fraction demonstrated the most protective effect through decreasing brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels at a dose 200 μg mL(-1) (40%, p < 0.001 versus iron group). Also, the aqueous fraction showed better activity in Fe(2+) chelating (89 ± 3.8 μg mL(-1)) and DPPH radical scavenging (394.4 ± 18.4 μg mL(-1)) models than other fractions. The probable protective mechanism of flavonoid-rich fractions may be attributed to their Fe(2+) chelating, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Also, the n-hexane fraction demonstrated a higher protective effect in the hemoglobin-induced linoleic acid system and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis (67 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Results of this study demonstrate Primula heterochroma is a rich source of natural antioxidant compounds.

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