JOURNAL ARTICLE

Total hip arthroplasty, hip osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, and knee osteoarthritis in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip and their family members: a kinship analysis report

Alison N Schiffern, David A Stevenson, Kristen L Carroll, Richard Pimentel, Geraldine Mineau, David H Viskochil, James W Roach
Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2012, 32 (6): 609-12
22892624

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a familial condition with a wide phenotypic expression. Families with high rates of DDH may have individuals with subtle phenotypic expression that can progress to osteoarthritis and require total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study compares the rates of THA in relatives of individuals with DDH with individuals in control families.

METHODS: Probands with a diagnosis of DDH were identified using medical records linked to the Utah Population Database. Ten age-matched and sex-matched controls were randomly selected from a pool of unaffected individuals within the Utah Population Database. Diagnostic and procedural codes were used to determine the incidence of hip and knee osteoarthritis (HOA and KOA) and of THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) among the cases and controls and their relatives. Relative risks (RR) for HOA and KOA and for THA and TKA were calculated for the probands/controls and their family members.

RESULTS: The RR of HOA was significantly increased in probands (RR=82.4; P<2e-16), their parents (R=2.22; P=0.0003), and in their grandparents (RR=1.33; P=0.011). The RR of THA was also significantly increased in probands (RR=1168; P <3e-08) and in their grandparents (RR=2.06; P=0.01). The RR of KOA was significantly increased in probands with a diagnosis of DDH (RR=20.96; P=2.2e-8) but not in their parents or grandparents. The RR of TKA was also increased in probands alone (RR=57.47; P=1.7e-05).

CONCLUSIONS: Parents and grandparents of individuals with diagnosed DDH are significantly more likely to be diagnosed with HOA and undergo THA than members of the general population. These first-degree and second-degree relatives were not at higher risk for KOA or TKA. Given the known familial association of DDH, this association with osteoarthritis of the hip suggests a risk of undiagnosed hip dysplasia in individuals whose families have a high rate of DDH.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

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