Three-dimensional echocardiography to quantify mitral valve regurgitation

Stephen H Little
Current Opinion in Cardiology 2012, 27 (5): 477-84

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current three-dimensional echocardiographic technology, including live three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and single-beat three-dimensional color Doppler imaging, are providing valuable new insight into the mechanism and quantification of mitral valve regurgitation.

RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss recent applications of three-dimensional volumetric leaflet imaging with emphasis on the distinction between organic and functional mitral regurgitation. We also discuss the added benefit of current and emerging three-dimensional color Doppler methods for the quantification of mitral valve regurgitation severity. The limitations of the two-dimensional proximal isovelocity surface area method are discussed, along with potential solutions provided by three-dimensional color Doppler imaging methods. Methods to directly measure the regurgitant jet vena contracta area are presented, along with recent clinical studies comparing this method with two-dimensional Doppler and cardiac MRI reference standards.

SUMMARY: The use of three-dimensional color Doppler methods has now been well validated for the accurate and reproducible quantification of mitral valve regurgitation severity. These newer tools are now clinically available and should be incorporated into the routine Doppler assessment of mitral valve regurgitation severity.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"