JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The impact of C4d staining as a humoral injury marker.

PURPOSE: Acute and chronic humoral injuries in renal transplant recipients are the main reasons for graft rejection and failure. Histological and clinical characteristics of humoral rejection and symptoms are variable and not always helpful for differential diagnosis. Clinical monitoring of the allograft, an elevated serum panel-reactive antibody (PRA), and the presence of donor-specific antibody (DSA) during immune monitoring as well as C4d staining of biopsy material can establish the differential diagnosis. Even without a cellular component, humoral rejection reaction is serious because the target tissue is the graft endothelium. Because the kidney graft has a rich vascular structure this attack causes permanent injury to the kidney in the long term. Graft dysfunction in this setting is usually more severe, requiring dialysis therapy, compared with acute cellular reactions. Positive C4d staining of peritubular capillaries in biopsy material represent a hallmark of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, supporting the diagnosis of humoral rejection. We analyzed C4d staining as a hallmark of humoral rejection.

METHODS: From 2009 to 2011, we analyzed the relationship between pathological findings of C4d immunohistochemistry staining and the clinical outcomes of 45 kidney transplant recipients who underwent a kidney biopsy because of graft dysfunction due to possible humoral rejection.

RESULTS: Biopsy specimens of 15 patients stained C4d positive; the remaining 30 showed negative results. Intravenous steroids, PP + IVIG with or without antithymocyte globulin (ATG), was administered for treatment. Sixty six percent (n = 10) of patients were C4d positive with 16% (n = 5) of those showing C4d-negative biopsy results, losing their grafts, and returning to hemodialysis.

CONCLUSIONS: C4d staining refractory humoral rejection injury was related to poor graft outcomes.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app