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Enuresis--an unattended comorbidity of childhood obesity.

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychopathological problems co-occur at increased rates among both obese and enuretic children. We hypothesized that the prevalence of enuresis will be increased in obese children and adolescents.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SUBJECTS: 281 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who completed a questionnaire regarding enuresis, medical conditions and sociodemographic parameters; 158 were normal weight, 37 overweight (85thBMI (body mass index)<95th percentiles) and 86 obese (BMI95th percentile).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Occurrence of enuresis among obese children and adolescents.

RESULTS: Enuresis was reported in 14 (8.8%) normal weight, 6 (16%) overweight and 26 (30%) obese youth. Odds ratio (OR)=6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.67-15.78 for enuresis among obese compared with normal weight (P<0.0001). Each increment of one BMI-Z score unit was associated with an increased risk of enuresis, OR of 2.14, 95% CI (1.46-3.12), P=0.00008. Male gender (OR 2.84, 95% CI (1.10-5.58), P=0.028), first-degree relative with current/past enuresis (OR 4.24, 95% CI (1.62-11.08), P=0.003), voiding dysfunction symptoms (OR 3.067, 95% CI (1.05-9.00), P=0.041) and ADHD (OR 2.31, 95% CI (0.99-5.34), P=0.051) increased the risk of enuresis. OSA-related symptoms, academic achievements in school, sharing a bedroom, family size relative to number of rooms in home, parental education, family status and religious observance were not found to increase the risk for enuresis.

CONCLUSIONS: Obese children are at increased risk for enuresis. Enuresis should be clarified during the primary workup of every obese child and adolescent.

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