JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Preoperative ⁹⁹mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and concomitant nodular goiter: comparison of SPECT-CT, SPECT, and planar imaging.

BACKGROUND: Investigations using a hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) scanning technique have been carried out in limited studies and have shown mixed results. However, the assessment of this technique for the detection of parathyroid adenoma in patients with a nodular goiter was performed in only one study with a small sample size. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid SPECT-CT scans for localization of parathyroid adenomas with a concomitant nodular goiter using 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and to compare it with SPECT and planar imaging.

METHODS: This study was conducted on 48 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and nodular goiter, who were candidates for parathyroid surgery and had been referred for parathyroid scintigraphy. The patients underwent an early set of planar 99mTc-MIBI scanning procedures first, followed by SPECT and CT scannings, and finally a delayed set of planar 99mTc-MIBI scannings. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and accuracy were determined on a per-parathyroid-gland basis for each scanning method, as defined by histology and follow-up.

RESULTS: The surgery was successful in 48 out of 50 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid nodularity, and data were completed for 80 sites in 48 patients. The accuracy of SPECT-CT in correctly identifying a parathyroid adenoma was 85.00, versus 75.00% for SPECT (P=0.01, significant). The sensitivity and specificity for SPECT-CT were 77.55 and 96.77%, respectively, versus 67.34 and 87.09%, respectively, for SPECT (P=0.12 and 0.12, not significant). There were nine sites that showed better localization on SPECT-CT scans relative to SPECT images, of which five sites were located in the ectopic regions.

CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate that SPECT-CT is more accurate than sestamibi planar imaging and SPECT for the preoperative identification of parathyroid lesions in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with thyroid nodularity. Also, we would recommend the use of SPECT-CT for a workup of all patients with ectopic glands who are scheduled for minimally invasive parathyroid surgery.

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