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Validation of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of repeat biopsy patients.

European Urology 2012 December
BACKGROUND: Wide variations in acquisition protocols and the lack of robust diagnostic criteria make magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of prostate cancer (PCa) one of the most challenging fields in radiology and urology.

OBJECTIVE: To validate the recently proposed European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system for multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An institutional review board-approved multicentric prospective study; 129 consecutive patients (1514 cores) referred for mpMRI after at least one set of negative biopsies.

INTERVENTION: Transfer of mpMRI-suspicious areas on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound images by 3D elastic surface registration; random systematic and targeted cores followed by core-by-core analysis of pathology and mpMRI characteristics of the core locations. The ESUR scores were assigned after the procedure on annotated Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine archives.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Relationships between ESUR scores and biopsy results were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The Yates correction and Pearson χ(2) tests evaluated the association between categorical variables. A teaching set was randomly drawn to construct the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ESUR score sum (ESUR-S). The threshold to recommend biopsy was obtained from the Youden J statistics and tested in the remaining validation set in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Higher T2-weighted, dynamic weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced ESUR scores were observed in areas yielding cancer-positive cores. The proportion of positive cores increased with the ESUR-S aggregated in five increments (ESUR-S 3-5: 2.9%; ESUR-S 6-8: 11.1%; ESUR-S 9-10: 38.2%; ESUR-S 11-12: 63.4%; and ESUR-S 13-15: 83.3%; p<0.0001). A threshold of ESUR-S ≥ 9 exhibited the following characteristics: sensitivity: 73.5%; specificity: 81.5%; positive predictive value: 38.2%; negative predictive value: 95.2%; and accuracy: 80.4%. Although the study was not designed to compare repeat biopsy strategies, more targeted cores than random systematic cores were found to be positive for cancer (36.3% compared with 4.9%, p<0.00001).

CONCLUSIONS: In the challenging situation of repeat biopsies, the ESUR scoring system was shown to provide clinically relevant stratification of the risk of showing PCa in a given location.

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